Coperate Management English 8

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1. Price is the sum of all the . . . that consumers exchange for the benefits of having or using the product or service.
2. Fixed price policies - setting one price for all buyers - is a relatively . . . idea that arose with the development of large-scale retailing at the end of the nineteenth century
3. The Internet promises to reverse the fixed pricing trend and takes us back to an era of . . . Pricing - charging different prices depending on individual customers and situations
         
4. Price is the only element in the marketing mix that produces revenue; all other elements represent . . .
5. Unlike product features and channel commitments, price can be changed . . .
6. Common mistakes include pricing that is too cost oriented rather than . . . oriented
         
7. Does using standard markups to set prices make sense? Generally, . . .
8. Does using standard markups to set prices make sense? Generally, no. Why?
9. Markup pricing remains popular for many reasons. Why?
         
10. Target pricing uses the concept of a . . . chart, which shows the total cost and total revenue expected at different sales volume levels.
11. If a company sets its target price based on customer perceptions of the product value, this is called:
12. Underpriced products sell very well, but they produce less . . . than they would have if price were raised to the perceived-value level.
         
13. To retain pricing power - to escape price competition and to justify higher prices and margins - a firm must retain or build the . . . of its marketing offer.
14. If a firm bases its price largely on competitors´ prices, with less attention paid to its own costs or to demand, this is called:
15. Internal factors affecting pricing include the company´s . . .
         
16. Many companies use current . . . maximization as their pricing goal.
17. Price decisions must be coordinated with product design, distribution, and promotion decisions to form a consistent and effective . . . program.
18. .. . set the floor for the price that the company can charge.
         
19. A company´s costs take two forms, fixed and variable. Fixed costs are also known as . . . costs.
20. A drop in the average cost with accumulated production experience is called the . . . curve.
21. External factors that affect pricing decisions include:
         
22. Under pure competition, the market consists of . . . buyers and sellers.
23. Under oligopolistic competition, the market consists of . . . sellers
24. In a pure monopoly, the market consists of . . . seller.
         
25. The relationship between the price charged and the resulting demand level is usually shown in the . . . curve.
26. How responsive demand will be to a change in price is expressed as . . .
27. In general, which four actions can be taken if a competitor reduces prices?
         
28. When companies set a low initial price in order to penetrate the market quickly and deeply - to attract a large number of buyers quickly and win a large market share, this is called:
29. When companies that invent new products initially set high prices, this is called:

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