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List the “four forces” acting on an aircraft in flight!



An aircraft in a steady and unaccelerated level flight is in the state of ..............




On an aircraft in a steady and unaccelerated level flight, weight is balanced by ........
         



On an aircraft in a steady and unaccelerated level flight, drag is balanced by ........



The LIFT / DRAG RATIO
is approximately ...... / .......

How is the interaction of the forces?


The greater the ..., the greater the ...
The greater the ..., the greater the ...
The greater the ..., the greater the ...
         




Which forces are influenced by the air and its properties?


Static pressure acts on all surfaces on an aircraft in the direction of movement.
True or false?



What is static pressure?
         




What are the properties of dynamic pressure?



Dynamic pressure is proportional to the density of the air and the square of the speed.

True or false?




What are the significant properties of air density?
         



Air density is proportional to the static pressure and proportional to the temperature.

True or false?


Select the factors that will contribute to the
decrease in air density.

A relatively high elevation
B high humidity
C high temperature
D high pressure system

Select the factors that will contribute to the
increase in air density.

A relatively low elevation
B high humidity
C high temperature
D high pressure system
         
Which values of the standard atmosphere
are represented by these three lines?



Static pressure decreases with altitude.
Compared to the static pressure at sea level, it is about ..... % at 18’000 ft and ..... % at 36’000 ft.



The temperature in the standard
atmosphere decreases with .... °C per ......... ft up to ..... ft and then remains constant until an altitude of ..... ft
         




Which altitude is denominated as “density
altitude”?



The performance of an aircraft with a
turbocharged piston engine is not affected by high density altitude.

True or false?




What is density altitude?
         



A pilot has to determine the density altitude at his departure airport. Which values does he need to
calculate?




In a simplified formula, there are four factors defining the lift generated by a wing.

Name all four factors.


When flying at high cruising levels and to
compensate for lower air density, we have to increase the indicated air speed to maintain lift.

True or false?
         





What is to compensate for lower air density to maintain lift?



On a wing with a given angle of attack, the
spoilers are deployed. How is the lift and the stall speed affected? (increase? decrease?)



On a wing with a given angle of attack, the flaps are extended. How is the lift and the stall speed affected? (increase? decrease?)
         
Which of these curves shows the correct
relation between the angle of attack and the corresponding lift force?





The angle of attack is the angle between ...



The pitch angle is the angle between ...
         




The climb angle is the angle between ...



Two identical aircraft with the same configuration but different in weight fly ath the same speed. The lighter aircraft will have the heiger angle of attack.

True or false?



We inform the pilot that he is entering an area where severe turbulence has been reported. Waht do we expect him to do?
         




Do spoilers and air brakes affect the AOA at which stall occurs?
As altitude increases:

a) A jet engine burns less fuel, and produces more thrust as well
b) A jet engine burns less fuel, and produces less thrust as well
c) A jet engine burns more fuel, but produces more thrust as well
d) A jet engine burns more fuel, but produces less thrust as well
In cold weather (relatively low air temperatures):

a) A jet engine burns less fuel, and produces more thrust as well
b) A jet engine burns less fuel, and produces less thrust as well
c) A jet engine burns more fuel, but produces more thrust as well
d) A jet engine burns more fuel, but produces less thrust as well
         



The maximum thrust is limited by 2 situations. What are they?




Is power increasing or decreasing as altitude/temperature increasing?





What is a flat rated engine?
         




The process of power producing?




What happens with increasing altitude?




What happenswith increasing temperature?
         




What is parasite drag?



The aircraft configuration has no effect on the parasite drag.

True or false?



What is induced drag?
         


Induced drag is a by-product of lift. The greater the aircraft mass the greater the lift and therefore the greater the induced drag.

True or false?
A, B and C together are .............. drag.
D is the indication for ................. drag.




The aircraft with constant configuration is increasing speed. Compared with increase of speed, how is the drag A+B+C, and how is the drag D increasing or decreasing?

         

Two identical aircraft are flying at same level with the same speed, but different in weight. The heavier aircraft is flying with a (greater? smaller?) angle of attack, the induced drag is (greater? smaller?) and the parasite drag is (greater? smaller?) than on the lighter aircraft.

Two identical aircraft are flying at same level with the same weight, but with different speeds. The faster aircraft is flying with a (greater? smaller?) angle of attack, the induced drag is (greater? smaller?) and the parasite drag is (greater? smaller?) than on the slower aircraft.




The total drag of an aircraft is the sum of
......... drag and .......... drag.
         



In an unaccelerated straight and level flight,lift equals weight. What is the load factor?

In an unaccelerated level flight, turbulence causes a pitch up moment (change of AOA) also Manoeuvres (turns, ptich changes). How are the load factor and the stall speed affected?

(increase? decrease?)
In an unaccelerated level flight, the aircraft starts to make a turn. How are the load factor and the stall speed affected?

(increase? decrease?)
         


How does an increasing bank angle in a turn affect the load factor?

(increase? decrease?)
In an unaccelerated level flight, the load factor at high altitude is lower than at low altitude.

True or false?

An aircraft in level flight makes a turn with a bank angle of 30°/60°. What is the load factor?
         



What is a positive/negative load factor?



The greater the bank angle, the greater the .... and the greater the .... requirement.
VA (manoeuvring speed) is the lowest speed at which no permanent deformation can occur if the load factor exceeds the certified load factor.

True or false?
         
When experiencing severe turbulence where the load factor may exceed the certified load factor, the speed may not exceed VA (manoeuvring
speed).

True or false?



What is the certified load factor without permanent deformation for todays aircraft?


What is the ultimate load for todays aircraft where no structural failure occurs?
         



Is it possible to reach the limiting factors between 1g and 2.5g?



Every aircraft has the same manoeuvring speed.

True or false?
VA (manoeuvring speed) is a fix value and is marked on the air speed indicator (line between
green and yellow arc).

True or false?
         


When talking about “Buffet onset boundary”, what is the statement regarding speed range between low speed stall and high speed stall and
increasing altitude?



What is the correct statement regarding increase or decrease of VRA (rough air speed) with increasing altitude?



When entering an area with moderate to severe
turbulence, the pilot will reduce to ........... speed.

         

When calculating the turn radius of an aircraft,which of these values are not a factor?
- IAS (indicated air speed)
- TAS (true air speed)
- actual aircraft weight
- bank angle


A CitationJet at FL 330 and a Boeing 747 at FL 180 are maintaining the same IAS (indicated airspeed). Both make a turn with a bank angle of 20°. Which aircraft flies the turn with the greater radius?
A CitationJet and a Boeing 747 are flying at FL 240 maintaining the same IAS (indicated airspeed). Both make a turn with a bank angle of 20°. Which aircraft flies the turn with the greater radius?
         
What is the Radius of turn?

What is the Time to turn?

What is the Rate of turn?


If we fly twice as fast with constant bank angle, our radius of turn will be ... times as great but our time to turn is onyl ...



What can additionally increase the value of turns?
         



How much is the efficiency of a rate one turn?
A B744 is heavy loaded. It flies a full orbit within 2 minutes with a true air speed of 200 knots (no wind).
The circle flown will have a diameter of .... NM.

How much with a TAS of 100 and 150 knots?


To fly this orbit within two minutes at 200 KTAS, the turn is flown with a bank angle of .... degrees.
         


When flying a turn with the same bank angle, but with double speed, the time to turn increases with factor ... , and the radius increases with factor ... .

Deploying flaps at constant speed will:

- increase or decrease form drag?
- increase or decrease lift?
- increase or decrease induced drag?
Maximum speed is achieved when the
….… thrust is balanced by the drag.

A minimum
B maximum
C best range
D best endurance
         



When approaching stall speed, the (parasite? induced?) drag is increasing rapidly.



When approaching maximum speed, the
(parasite? induced?) drag is increasing rapidly.



When flying with best endurance speed, the sum of induced drag and parasite drag is at its (minimum? maximum?)
         



To fly a constant level and speed, the lift must balance the drag.

True or false?

When flying high level in high temperatures with a jet aircraft, this always results in best efficiency.

True or false?


When flying low level in low temperatures with a jet aircraft, this always results in higher power
production.

True or false?
         


When climbing a jet aircraft to a higher level, efficiency is always getting better.

True or false?


When climbing a jet aircraft to a higher level, climb performance will decrease.

True or false?



During cold winter time, climb performance is (better? worse?) than on hot summer days.
         


Climb is only possible when the required thrust is higher than the available thrust.

True or false?



The speed for lowest total drag is equivalent to the speed for (best rate? best angle?) of climb.



Which speed (best rate of climb speed?
best angle of climb speed?) is normally higher?
         


To reach a given altitude within the shortest distance, the speed for (best rate? best angle?) of climb should be flown!



To reach a given altitude within the shortest time, the speed for (best rate? best angle?) of climb should be flown!



Definition of Rate of Climb or Vertical Speed

Same for Rate of Descent
         



Definition of Climb gradient or Angle of Climb!

When maintaining best rate of climb speed and increasing thrust, the rate of climb will (increase? no change? decrease?) and the climb gradient
will (increase? no change? decrease?)



Rate of climb (increases? decreases?)
with increasing altitude.
         



Rate of climb is usually expressed in ......
Climb gradient is usually expressed in .....



Rate of climb (increases? decreases?)
with increasing altitude.
When comparing the climb performance in a “headwind” situation to a “no wind” situation, the rate of climb will (increase? no change?decrease?), the angle of climb will (increase? no change? decrease?), the time to climb will (increase? no change? decrease?) and the climb
gradient will (increase? no change? decrease?)
         



Initial climb to clear obstacles will be flown with (VX? VY?)


When the required thrust is lower than the available thrust, the aircraft will start to (climb? descend?).


How is the distance in a Headwind / no wind / Tailwind situation for the angle of climb / rate of climb?
         


The speed for lowest total drag is equivalent to
A the speed for best endurance
B the speed for best range
C the maximum cruise speed




What speed do we have when the maximum
available thrust equals to drag?


At the speed for maximum range,
A the fuel flow is at its minimum
B the proportion between fuel flow and speed is at its minimum
C the drag is at its minimum


         



When the proportion between speed and thrust is
at its maximum, we fly with
A best rate of climb speed
B best angle of climb speed
C speed for best range
D speed for best endurance
E maximum cruise speed





To increase the cruise speed always results in an increase of range.
True? False?



When a lower than optimum flap angle is used take-off, the distance required is increased, and climb gradient is
(increased? reduced?)
         



When a lower than optimum flap angle is used take-off, the distance required is increased, and climb gradient is
(increased? reduced?)



Wheel drag is proportional to the
A air density
B wing surface
C aircrafts speed
D aircrafts mass

The take-off phase of a flight starts from the ...
A holding position
B brakes release point on line up
C brake release point before push back
D start of the engines
... and ends at a point when the aircraft reaches a defined
height over the surface.
         

The take-off phase of a flight starts from the ...
A holding position
B brakes release point on line up
C brake release point before push back
D start of the engines
... and ends at a point when the aircraft reaches a defined
height over the surface.
The greater the take-off mass the longer the RWY length required for T.O. due to
A faster acceleration (proportional to aircrafts mass)
B greater thrust created by the engines
C lower speed required for creation of corresponding lift
D greater lift force required to overcome weight, therefore greater speed is necessary for take-off
E wheel drag is greater due to incr. load
F longer time required by the jet engines to produce the same thrust




Which factors do affect the forces?
         



The lower the air temperature on take-off, the (longer? shorter?) runway length required for the take-off.


An uphill slope (increases? decreases? has no effect on?) the rate of acceleration during take-off, and, therefore, (increases? decreases? has no effect on?) the take-off
distance required.



An uphill slope (increases? decreases? has no effect on?) the rate of acceleration during take-off, and, therefore, (increases? decreases? has no effect on?) the take-off
distance required.

         
The lower air density the longer runway length required for take-off due to
A faster acceleration (which is proportional to aircrafts thrust)
B lower thrust created by the engines
C greater speed required for creation of corresponding lift
D wheel drag is greater due to lower aerodynamic drag
E lower temperature
F greater lift force required to overcome weight




The greater the take-of mass ....


V1 speed is defined as
A rotation speed
B engine inoperative safe stop speed
C take-off safety speed with critical engine inoperative
D decision speed
         
Three aircraft are departing in different wind conditions.







Red?
White?
Green?
No wind? Headwind? Tailwind?
Thrust produced during the take-off is ...

A greater than
B lower than
C equal to
D lower in the beginning but greater as the aircraft speeds up
... the total drag.

Air density during take-off is determined by pressure, aerodrome elevation, temperature and humidity.

True or false?
         
If the runway is sloping, a component of the weight acts along the runway and increases or decreases the acceleration force, depending on the direction of the slope.

True or false?



How does a flap setting affect the take-off distance?

During take-off, lift force is (increasing? remaining constant? decreasing?) as the aircraft is gaining speed.
         



A tailwind during take-off increases ground speed at a required take-off air speed and, therefore, (increases? decreases? has no
effect on?) the take-off distance.


V2 speed is defined as
A engine inoperative safe stop speed
B decision speed
C rotation speed
D take-off safety speed with critical engine inoperative

The drag component created by the aircraft weight pressing down on
the runway surface is called
A wheel drag
B brake drag
C induced drag
D friction drag
         



When the airframe is contaminated by frost, ice or snow during take-off aircraft performance will be reduced, and take-off distance increased.
True or false?



If the runway is contaminated by snow, slush or standing water, wheel drag will be (increased? decreased?). Thus the accelerating force decreases and take-off distance required (increases?
decreases?).
VR speed is defined as

A engine inoperative safe stop speed
B rotation speed
C take-off safety speed with critical engine inoperative
D decision speed

         
If there are obstacles to be considered in the take-off flight path, the flap setting that gives the shortest take-off distance must be used for that particular take-off.

True or false?




A crosswind during take-off has (different effect? no effect? great effect?) on take-off distance.



During the take-off, wheel drag is ...
A remaining constant
B decreasing
C increasing
... as the aircraft is gaining speed.

         



When the optimum flap angle is used to reduce take-off distance
required, in comparison to "zero" flaps, the climb gradient will be
(increased? unchanged? reduced?).



A downhill slope (decreases? increases? has no effect on?) the rate of acceleration during take-off, and, therefore (decreases? increases? has no effect on?) the take-off distance required.


Take-off distance will decrease with increase of flap angle initially, but above a certain flap angle take-off distance will increase again. An optimum take-off setting can be determined for each type of aircraft and any deviation from this setting will increase take-off distance. True or false?
         



A tailwind component will (increase? not affect? decrease?) the climb gradient.



When does the climb phase start and end?



For the first portion of the climb phase it is more convenient to consider the (climb gradient? climb speed? vertical speed?) rather than the rate of climb.
         


For the second portion of the climb phase, when the aircraft has over flown the close-in obstacles, it is more convenient to consider the (angle of climb? rate of climb?) rather than the climb gradient.


Climb gradient is equal to
A V x (DRAG - THRUST) / WEIGHT
B (THRUST - DRAG) / WEIGHT
C (WEIGHT - LIFT) / DRAG
D V x (LIFT - WEIGHT) / DRAG



Which factors do affect the climb performance?
         

For a given aircraft mass maximum climb gradient will occur at a particular speed also known as
A maximum climb speed
B best range speed
C best rate of climb speed
D best angle of climb speed




Maximum climb gradient is not affected by temperature of the surrounding air. True or false?
For a given aircraft mass maximum rate of climb will occur at a particular speed when the
A product of speed and excess thrust is maximum
B product of speed and total drag is maximum
C total drag is equal to excess thrust
D excess thrust is maximum
         



Rate of climb is equal to
A V x (LIFT - WEIGHT) / DRAG
B (WEIGHT - LIFT) / DRAG
C (DRAG - THRUST) / WEIGHT
D V x (THRUST - DRAG) / WEIGHT



Crosswind component has no effect on the climb gradient.

True or false?


The higher the air temperature, the (less? more?) thrust can be produced by the engines. Hence the difference between thrust and drag during climb is (lower? constant? greater?). Therefore, the climb gradient will be (greater? not affected? reduced?).
         



What happens when the gears are retracted?




What happens when an ac turns?


How is the cabin pressurization (equvalent to which conditions?
         




When does the cruise phase start and end?





There are 2 main options for cruise. Which are they?






What is range?





         



What are the factors affecting the best range?



What is specific range (SR)?



How is the calculation of specific range?
         



What effect has aircraft mass to the best range?



How does air density affect the best range?
What is best range speed?


How does the speed affect the best range?
         

Best endurance is
A greatest distance travelled with fuel available
B longest duration of flight with fuel available
C maximum fuel flow and greatest distance travelled
D less distance travelled
Long range flights usually require few step climbs during their flight because
A change in latitude means change in flight condition and height of the tropopause
B maximum speed decreases as weight decreases
C long time required for acceleration due to great mass
D optimum altitude for best range increases as weight decreases
Sometimes, change in altitude during cruise is desirable if the gain for more favourable wind exceeds loss in range from the change of altitude. This is also known as
A altitude-range trade
B altitude change trade
C wind-ground speed trade
D wind-altitude trade
         



Flying at higher speeds than best range speed increases (drag? lift? thrust?) and (fuel flow? weight? thrust?) and therefore reduces range.




Increase in mass will require increase in thrust and fuel flow and results in (increase? decrease?) in range.


Increasing altitude (decreasing air density) will increase endurance all the way up to optimum level after which compressibility will increase drag and therefore reduce
endurance.
True or false?
         
Select the items describing best range cruise technique
A Greatest distance travelled per given time
B Minimum time to travel required distance
C Lowest fuel flow
D Maximum time the aircraft can remain airborne with fuel available
E Maximum distance covered for fuel available
F Use least fuel for distance required to travel



Optimum altitude for best endurance (decreases? increases?) as weight decreases.

Select the two factors affecting maximum cruising speed at a given aircraft mass and at a given altitude.
A Distance to the destination
B Manoeuvre capability
C Maximum thrust
D Ability to operate aircraft configuration
E Fuel available
F Maximum drag
         
Maximum range is increasing with altitude because of
A positive effect of jet streams at high altitude
B increased efficiency of jet engine
C increased thrust created by jet engines
D reduced drag (lower air density)
E increased air compressibility
F increased ground speed



A headwind component will (increase? not affect? decrease?) the climb gradient.
Select the items describing best speed cruise technique
A Use least fuel for distance required to travel
B Maximum time the aircraft can remain airborne with fuel available
C Greatest distance travelled per given time
D Maximum distance covered for fuel available
E Lowest fuel flow
F Minimum time to travel required distance
         
Optimum level for best range:
Identify the heavier aircraft
- Blue
- Red Red
Optimum altitude for best range is equal to optimum altitude for best speed.


True or false?
Increased mass gives (increased? reduced? same?) drag which (decreases? does not affect? increases?) excess thrust (difference between thrust and drag), and therefore (increases? reduces?) maximum rate of climb.

         
Climb gradient is the ratio between the height gained during climb and the distance travelled.


True or false?



Increasing altitude (decreasing density) will reduce thrust and therefore reduce the climb gradient.

True or false?



A tailwind component will (increase? not affect? decrease?) the descent gradient.
         
The speed control technique shall be exercised
A whenever possible
B with very small deviations from the optimum (as small as possible)
C for very short but frequent periods during flight (the more the better)
D never unless the aircraft is close to destination

Select the items describing best endurance cruise technique
A Use least fuel for distance required to travel
B Maximum time the aircraft can remain airborne with fuel available
C Greatest distance travelled per given time
D Maximum distance covered for fuel available
E Lowest fuel flow
F Minimum time to travel required distance



The best rate of climb speed is always the same as the best angle of climb speed.
True or false?
         



The rate of descent is the ratio between height descended to distance travelled.

True or false?
For a given aircraft mass maximum rate of climb will occur at a particular speed also known as

A best angle of climb speed
B best rate of climb speed
C best range speed
D maximum climb speed

Even small deviations from the optimum altitude (up to 2000 feet) will have a great effect on the aircrafts range.

True or false?
         
When speed control is exercised and lower speed is assigned to an aircraft,
A less fuel is burned and therefore range and economy are increased
B the aircraft would normally fly athigher angle of attack and therefore will burn less fuel (due to lower drag)
C the economy of the flight is not affected
D the time required to reach destination is longer and therefore the flight is less economical (more fuel is burned)


Flying at lower speeds than best range speed reduces the distance travelled per time, but also reduces drag and fuel flow, and therefore increases range.

True or false?



When deciding on the flight profile, flight crews will also take in consideration economic factors.

True or False?
         
When speed control is exercised and a higher speed is assigned to an aircraft,
A the time required to reach destination is shorter and therefore the flight is more economical
B the aircraft would normally fly at lower angle of attack and therefore will burn less fuel (due to lower drag)
C more fuel is burned and therefore range and economy are adversely affected
D the economy of the flight is not affected
For a given aircraft mass the minimum descent gradient for power off descent will occur at a particular speed when

A total drag is equal to excess thrust
B excess thrust is minimum
C total drag is maximum
D lift to drag ratio is maximum
In a steady descent, weight has a component along the flight path, which adds to

A weight force C thrust force
B drag force D lift force
         
Aircrafts mass has an effect on maximum endurance achieved. The higher the aircrafts mass the higher the endurance with fuel available.

True or false?
When cruising with a tailwind component, the
A best range is decreased
B best range is increased
and
C best range speed is lower
D best range speed is not affected
E best range speed is higher

Optimum level for best endurance:
Identify the lighter aircraft
- Blue
- Red Blue
         




A headwind component will (increase? not affect? decrease?) the descent gradient.
In a steady climb, weight has a component along the flight path, which adds to the

A lift force
B weight force
C thrust force
D drag force
Rate of climb depends on aircrafts speed and the difference between

A drag and thrust (excess drag) and weight
B weight and lift (excess weight) and drag
C lift and weight (excess lift) and drag
D thrust and drag (excess thrust) and weight
         
Rate of climb depends on aircrafts speed and the difference between

A drag and thrust (excess drag) and weight
B weight and lift (excess weight) and drag
C lift and weight (excess lift) and drag
D thrust and drag (excess thrust) and weight
Rate of climb is usually expressed in

A percentage
B feet per minute
C feet
D nautical miles




When maximum rate of climb imposed by the cabin pressurization system is exceeded, the aircraft structure is overstressed from inside and structural failure (explosion? implosion?) is possible.
         



A headwind will (increase? decrease?) maximum range
When the aircraft is climbing, the change of cabin pressure is ...
A proportional to
B greater than
C equal to
D independent of
... the change of ambient pressure, to control the structural stress on the fuselage from the inside.

Above optimum altitude for best range effects of air compressibility cause drag to increase resulting in reduced maximum range.

True or false?
         
Best range is achieved at optimum level with

A minimum speed
B any speed
C maximum speed
D best range speed
Increase in mass will require increase in thrust and fuel flow and (increase? decrease?) in endurance.
Increased air temperature has an adverse effect on maximum endurance.

True or false?
         
Maximum speed is achieved when ...
A minimum cruise thrust
B maximum cruise thrust
C best range cruise thrust
D economic cruise thrust
... available is balanced by drag
When heavier, an aircraft can achieve higher maximum speed at a given level, but it will take longer time for acceleration.

True or false?
Rate of descent depends on aircrafts speed and difference between

A drag and thrust (excess drag) and weight
B lift and weight (excess lift) and drag
C thrust and drag (excess thrust) and weight
D weight and lift (excess weight) and drag
         



A headwind component will (increase? not affect? decrease?) the descent gradient

The descent gradient is the ratio between height descended to distance travelled. True or false?
The descent gradient is equal to
A V x (WEIGHT - LIFT) / DRAG
B (THRUST - DRAG) / WEIGHT
C V x (LIFT - WEIGHT) / DRAG
D (DRAG - THRUST) / WEIGHT
         
The descent gradient for power off descent is equal to
A DRAG / LIFT
B WEIGHT / DRAG
C LIFT / DRAG
D LIFT / WEIGHT

Crosswind component has no effect on descent gradient.

True or false?
The descent gradient depends on the difference between
A thrust and drag (excess thrust) and weight
B lift and weight (excess lift) and drag
C drag and thrust (excess drag) and weight
D weight and lift (excess weight) and drag
         



Rate of descent is usually expressed in ......
Descent gradient is usually expressed in .....



If higher flap angle is used, the descent gradient will be
A less
B not affected
C greater
The higher the aerodrome elevation the higher the ...
A IAS
B TAS
C CAS
D mach number
... during final approach for given aircraft mass.
         
Wind has no effect on IAS during final approach.


True or false?
An aircraft is expected to fly with (higher? lower? same? maximum?) airspeed on final approach when its mass is greater.
When landing flaps and undercarriage are lowered drag is increased significantly, so it is expected by the pilot to increase
power during final approach and to (reduce? increase?) airspeed.
         
Aircraft configuration is used during final approach to
A enable steep final approach path with low speed
B decrease lift with increase of speed
C increase lift with increase of speed
D enable minimum descent gradient during final approach path
Aircraft configuration and engine power are used during final approach to

A increase rate of descent
B enable minimum descent gradient during final approach path
C increase lift produced by the wings
D reduce further speed and maintain same descent gradient
Aircrafts mass has no influence on speed during final approach.
True or false?
         
Minimum speed during final approach at which required lift can be
achieved will be (lower? the same? higher?) when the aircraft has
a greater mass.
Aerodrome elevation has no effect on aircraft IAS during final approach for a given aircraft mass.

True or false?
The safety margin must be increased in case of reported windshear during final approach and therefore aircraft would normally fly at slightly higher speed on final approach if it is known such conditions
prevail in a given situation.

True or false?
         
A headwind will
A increase ground speed during final approach phase
B increase the descent gradient during final approach phase
C decrease ground speed during final approach phase
D decrease the descent gradient during final approach phase
When landing flaps and undercarriage are lowered drag is increased significantly, so it is expected by the pilot to increase power during final approach.

True or false?
Wind has no effect on ground speed during final approach, but it affects the descent gradient.

True or false?
         
It is expected that, usually, flap setting on landing will be
A zero
B minimum
C 10°
D maximum
Ground speed on final approach ...
A increase with
B decrease with
C depends only on
D does not depend on
... aerodrome elevation.

The effect of mass on brake drag on landing is more dominant than
the effects of mass on landing speed and rate of deceleration.
True or false?
         
Besides the landing speed, aircraft mass affects as well
A point of touchdown
B wheel drag
C decision altitude
D flap setting
E rate of deceleration upon landing
F thrust required for reverse
An uphill slope (reduces? increases?) rate of deceleration during landing, and therefore (decreases? increases?) landing distance required.

Which factor is the most significant for the length of runway required for landing?

A Ground speed on final approach
B Aircrafts mass
C IAS during final approach
D Temperature
         
The effects of mass on the landing speed and rate of deceleration are more dominant than the effect of mass on brake drag on landing.

True or false?
The distance required for landing is proportional to the square of
the aircrafts ...
A ground speed
B mass
C flap setting
D total drag
... on landing.
An downhill slope (reduces? increases?) rate of deceleration during landing, and therefore (decreases? increases?) landing distance required.
         
A tailwind component during landing (reduces? increases?) deceleration force and therefore (destroys? improves?) breaking efficiency.
Besides the landing ground speed, aerodrome elevation affects as well

A flap setting
B rate of deceleration upon landing due to decreased drag
C reverse thrust
D point of touchdown
E wheel drag
Increased mass (reduces? increases?) the deceleration for a given deceleration force and therefore (reduces? increases?) landing distance (inertia).
         
For calculation of the landing distance required the pilot is
A not using wind since it is not significant
B allowed to use the reported wind
C not allowed to use any wind information received from the ground
D allowed to use 50% of the reported headwind and 150% of the reported tailwind
When vertical speed control is exercised and higher rate of climb is assigned to an aircraft,
A the time required to reach cruising level is shorter and therefore the flight is more economical
B the aircraft would normally fly at lower speed and therefore flying time to destination will be shorter
C the economy of the flight is not affected since the aircraft is climbing anyway
D more fuel is burned and therefore range and economy are adversely affected
Flight economy is never a significant factor that determines expected aircraft performance.

True or false?
         
Whenever possible aircraft shall be allowed unrestricted climb and/or unrestricted descent due to economical reasons.

True or false?
Whenever possible aircraft should be vectored along the ...
A flight planned route
B deviation route
C most direct route
... and/or different (longer) route should not be assigned, unless absolutely necessary taking in consideration other factors.
Noise abatement procedures are designed to increase environmental protection in the vicinity of major aerodromes and to improve flight economics.

True or false?
         
Select restrictions imposed on performance of ac to prevent bird strikes.
A Military flights with noisier aircraft to discourage birds from flying around airports
B Required power reduction on dep. and requirement to follow specific outbound routings not noticed by the birds
C The departure and arrival routes tailored to avoid areas with birds
D Forbidden use of reverse thrust
E Designation and avoidance of potentially dangerous areas with bird colonies
Radar vectoring away from the most direct route, usually affects adversely the economy of the flight, because
A to turn the aircraft at high speed it is necessary to increase power
B it complicates required navigation
C it increases the workload of pilots
D it increases distance to be flown from departure to destination
Select ecological factors considered most common and with greatest influence to aircraft performance.
A Special procedures for fuel dumping
B Bird colonies/migrations
C Noise abatement
D Military flights
E The quality of air in the vicinity of major aerodromes
F The quality of water that falls as rain
         
Select restrictions imposed on operation of aircraft due to noise abatement procedures.
A Max. altitude defined over certain area
B Runway occupancy time limited
C Time restrictions on some standard instrument departure procedures or standard arrivals
D Forbidden use of reverse thrust at night
E RWY downhill slope not allowed for T/O
F Required power reduction on departure and requirement to follow specific outbound routings away from protected areas
Large deviations from the optimum altitude, may cause significant loss in range and may even require aircraft to divert to an enroute
alternative airport for an intermediate stop and refuelling, which is time consuming and expensive.

True or false?
Select other miscellaneous factors considered most common and with greatest influence to aircraft performance.
A Special procedures for aerobatic flights
B Dog or cat colonies/migrations
C Military flights
D The quality of air in the vicinity of major aerodromes
E Aerial photographing
F Calibration flights
         
Military aircraft fly for other purposes than civil aircraft do and therefore they have ...
A different C similar
B same D simplified
... procedures and performance requirements to meet their needs.
Select restr. imposed on perf. of civil ac by military flights within same area.
A Increased runway occupancy time
B Reservation of block of airspace, to prevent use of the most direct routings
C Designation and avoidance of potentially dangerous areas with bird colonies
D Required power reduction on departure and requirement to follow specific outb. routings not to disturb military exercise
E Dep. and arr. routes are tailored to avoid populated areas
F Forbidden use of reverse thrust
Calibration flights have no effect or limitations on the performance of civil aircraft.

True or false?
         
Radar vectoring away from the most direct route and/or change of route increases distance to be flown by an aircraft from departure to destination airport.

True or false?
Regulations governing fuel dumping depend on safety and ecological factors.

True or false?

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